Human and Animal Trypanosomiasis in Lambwe Valley Foci, Kenya–Current Situation and Latent Trypanotolerance
Willis Onyango Okoth, Owiti George Michael, Onyango Kennedy, Owiti O Thedeus, Bob Awino, Willis Oyieko, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Odero Wilson
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Human and animal trypanosomiasis are threats to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa. Numerous integrated vector control programs in Lambwe Valley foci have not been in tandem with insights aimed at investigating the prevalence trends besides assessing possible trypanotolerance in cattle. The cross-sectional survey enlisted human and cattle subjects for examination. Prevalence of trypanosomiasis in animal subjects was 9.2%. Blood parameters; white blood cells, lymphocytes and granulocytes were significantly lower among the parasitaemic as compared to the aparasitaemic animals except for monocyte proportions whereas, Red blood cells indices were depressed in trypanosomiasis. Viewed together, the presented findings point to animal trypanosomiasis cases in Lambwe Valley with chronic anemia and depressed white blood cell levels persisting as the most common features of the disease. High throughput molecular-based techniques currently not accessible should be incorporated into national and regional governance control programs as well as monitoring and evaluation strategies and this should be applied at both veterinary and clinical settings. Such efforts will go a long way in operationalization of modern advanced practices while mitigating likely clinical and veterinary challenge around accurate cases profiling and management based on the current widely available and applied prognosis/diagnostic strategies.