Relationships in Childhood
Howard Steele, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, W Thomas Boyce, Mary Dozier, Nathan A Fox, Heidi Keller, Dario Maestripieri, Paul Odhiambo Oburu, Hiltrud Otto
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This chapter focuses on early childhood experiences and how they may contribute to cooperative and peaceful behaviors and outcomes in the later childhood years and into adulthood. Five interrelated topics are explored:(a) universal tensions ever pushing us toward competition or cooperation;(b) socioeconomic inequities that powerfully constrain children's (and adult's) potential to contribute to and participate in a healthy and peaceful society;(c) the protective and enabling forces of the early caregiving environment when it is sensitive and responsive to children's needs;(d) the malevolent, if culturally understandable, influences of harsh parenting practices and child abuse; and (e) a summary of early psychological interventions that promote sensitive parenting and secure attachments well known to be associated with cooperative, nonviolent behaviors across childhood and beyond. Each section is punctuated by suggestions for further research and public policy developments (national and international) that could further advance the cause of peace.
- Department of Psychology