Assessment of vulnerabilities to drought, impact and adaptation options in pastoral production systems in Laisamis, Marsabit county, Kenya
JIDDAH, Choke. Chufe
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Dry lands are home to about 25–30% of the global population, or around two billion people, 90% of those who live in developing countries. The same report indicates that 40% of the human population of both Africa and Asia live in such these areas. Dry lands cover 80 % of Kenya‘s land surface in Kenya and 100% of the study area. Drought is a major disaster causing huge damages to humanity, the environment and the economy at global, continental, national and in the study area. Despite making considerable progress on monitoring, forecasting and mitigation of droughts across the world, there are still gaps in drought vulnerability assessment, determining drought impacts and adaptation options. The evidence of gaps is the too frequent and severe drought without adequate interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess vulnerabilities to drought, impact and adaptation options of pastoralists’ production systems in Laisamis Sub-County, Marsabit County. The specific objectives of the study were to: Assess magnitude of vulnerabilities to drought in pastoral production system; assess the impact and find out the adaptation options to drought in pastoral production system. The study employed a crosssectional research design which was used to provide systematic and accurate facts about households, the community and describes current situation. Stratified random sampling approach was used to obtain the primary data. The minimum sample size of 376 households was calculated using Taro Yamane (1967:886) simplified formula. The study targeted 6,182 households in four locations in Laisamis Sub-County, Marsabit County, Kenya. The unit of analysis was the households heads which were interviewed. Secondary data were obtained from relevant public reports, agricultural reports, statistical abstracts and publications from development partners. The household Vulnerability Index was calculated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA).This was done by subtracting average adaptation indices and exposure and sensitivity indices. Primary data on drought adaptation options and impacts of drought were obtained through questionnaires. The study considered various biophysical and socio-economic factors to calculate Vulnerability Index. Weights for different indicators to calculate the Household Vulnerability Index (HVI) were used. Data analyses were done using frequencies, percentages, Pearson correlation coefficient, cross tabulations and Chi square tests. The presentations of results were done in form of narrative, graphs, tables, pie and bar charts. Household vulnerability was assessed in this study. The results show that 2.3 % of the households were highly vulnerable, 32.6 % were moderately vulnerable and 65.1 % less vulnerable. The overall drought vulnerability index for the study area was 0.46, indicating moderate vulnerability. Drought adaptation options were identified. Drought impacts was measured through Drought Index indicating 53 % for the study area resulting in less available pasture, low livestock population, high livestock mortality, low meat and milk production. It can be concluded that understanding the vulnerability of households to drought is indispensable for decision-makers to device adaptation strategies for long-term resilience building of pastoral households. The study concluded minimum external interventions are required for resilience building in the study area.