Direct and indirect effects of predation and parasitism on the Anopheles gambiae mosquito
Ogola Onyango, Patrick.
MetadataShow full item record
A good understanding of mosquito ecology is imperative for integrated vector control of malaria. In breeding sites, Anopheles larvae are concurrently exposed to predators and parasites. However, to our knowledge, there is no study on combined effects of predators and parasites on development and survival of larvae and their carry-over effects on adult survivorship and susceptibility to further parasite infection. This study focused on effects of the nymphs of the dragonfly Pantala flavescens and the parasitic fungus Beauveria bassiana on Anopheles gambiae, to determine: predation efficacy of nymphs against An. gambiae larvae; development rate of An. gambiae larvae in the presence of one, two or four constrained nymphs; efficacy of B. bassiana against An. gambiae larvae at doses of 3, 6 and 12 mg; and survival of adult mosquitoes exposed to B. bassiana, following pre-exposure to a constrained predator and/or parasite at the larval stage. The experiments consisted of survival bioassays quantified as pupation day, or dead larvae and/or adults. Nymphs had an average predation efficacy of 88.3% (95% CI: 87.5–89.1) at 24 hours, against An. gambiae larvae. The presence of one or two nymphs reduced development time of larvae by 0.65 and 0.35 days, respectively. However, development time of larvae exposed to four nymphs was similar to the control larvae. Larvae exposed to 3, 6 and 12 mg of B. bassiana were 2.0, 2.5 and 3.5 times more likely to die, respectively, compared to control larvae. Adults not pre-exposed, those pre-exposed to predator, parasite, or both were 45.8, 67.4, 50.9 and 112.0 times more likely to die, respectively …
- Department of Zoology