|dc.description.abstract||Attention to watershed management is increasing across the developing world. In India, for example, more than US $500 million is invested in watershed projects every year. There are compelling reasons to believe that this interest will continue to grow. Water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. Tunisia, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Algeria, Somalia and Malawi were already considered water scarce in 1990; by 2025 they will be joined by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Egypt, Comoros, South Africa and Ethiopia (as measured by the availability of 1 000 m'of renewable water per person per year)(www. cnie. org/pop/pai/water-14. html). Concerns about water scarcity in South Africa have led to the Working for Water programme to remove fastgrowing invasive trees from critical catchment areas and areas of valuable biodiversity (www. dwaf. pww. gov. za/wfw). Across the developing world, ever-greater numbers of people are exposed to flood risks. Soil erosion continues to degrade agricultural potential, while dams, reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure continue to be clogged with sediment.
Integrated water management and ecosystem approaches are now generally recognized as vital to durable solutions to these challenges. In India, for example, the most successful watershed and catchment management programmes involve multiple stakeholders–community groups, NGOs, government agencies–a mix of new techniques and social organization, and give balanced attention to improving resource management and farmers’ livelihoods (Kerr, Pangare and Pangare, 2002).||en_US