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Design and attitudinal barriers influencing accessibility of learners with physical disability to bus termini in the western part of Kenya

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dc.contributor.author OCHIENG' Apella, Marilyn
dc.date.accessioned 2019-01-16T12:29:47Z
dc.date.available 2019-01-16T12:29:47Z
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.uri https://repository.maseno.ac.ke/handle/123456789/831
dc.description.abstract ABSTRACT: Globally, approximately one billion people have disabilities of which 80% reside in developing countries. In order to ensure equitable treatment of people with disability, the Government of Kenya enacted legislations advocating for non-discrimination against people with disability. Despite the existence of an enabling legal framework upholding the right of admission to public spaces by all, bus termini remain inaccessible to learners with physical disability during times they use these facilities in the trip to school. In Kenya, learners with disability who are enrolled in special schools are 35,000. Learners with physical disability who receive special education services in Kenya make up 25% of all students with disability receiving educational services. The main objective of this study was to evaluate design and attitudinal barriers influencing accessibility of learners with physical disability to bus termini in the western part of Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to: determine the influence of design of circulation paths in bus termini on mobility of learners with physical disability; establish the influence of layout of amenities in bus termini on independence of learners with physical disability; examine the impact of attitudes of other users of termini on spatial inclusion of learners with physical disability. This study used Universal Design Theory which advocates for provision of built environments which enhance access for all. A cross sectional survey targeting learners with physical disability who frequently used bus termini in the western part of Kenya was done. The population of these learners was 1,525 from which 317 respondents were sampled. The study also targeted seventeen key informants drawn from the County Works offices and the National Land Commission. Data was collected using questionnaires, an observation schedule and key informant interviews. The study yielded qualitative and quantitative data. The study found out that the accessibility of the learners was hampered due to: inappropriate maintenance practices and poor design of circulation paths; inappropriate design of washrooms, seating facilities and signage. Negative attitudes were also exhibited by other users of bus termini during instances when the learners had surmounted a perceived design barrier, or when they were locked out of certain spaces due to the presence of a design barrier. The following conclusions can be made: the mobility of the learners was hampered when they made use of circulation paths in the bus termini; the independence of the learners was hampered due to inappropriate design and layout of amenities; presence of negative attitudes enhanced spatial exclusion of learners with physical disability. To enhance access, the following recommendations are made: circulation spaces in the bus termini should be redesigned so that barriers arising due to inappropriate construction practices or wear and tear can be eliminated; there is need for major renovations in bus termini so that the planners and designers can redesign these spaces to conform to a Universal Design template; the Government of Kenya should provide civic education to members of society so as to enable them get rid of their negative view of people with disability. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Maseno University en_US
dc.subject Planning en_US
dc.title Design and attitudinal barriers influencing accessibility of learners with physical disability to bus termini in the western part of Kenya en_US
dc.type PhD Thesis en_US


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